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A Name for Social Justice and for a Human Rights Strategy with Regard to Psychological Well being within the Occupied Palestinian Territories

Quantity 24/2, December 2022, pp. 305-318 |  PDF

Maria Helbich and Samah Jabr


This paper examines the method of depoliticization of psychological well being within the occupied Palestinian territories (oPt) and hyperlinks it to a important evaluation of post-traumatic stress dysfunction and the position of worldwide humanitarian assist. It’s based mostly on a human rights framework that focuses on the best to well being and that’s instrumental in connecting human rights violations to calls for of social justice. Efforts to weaken justice and reparations are analyzed by trying on the position of psychological well being professionals and assumptions of psychotherapy as a impartial and nonpolitical sphere. By drawing on fashions of decoloniality and liberation psychology, we advocate for a shift from a decontextualized and individualistic strategy to psychological well being to acknowledging the structural, social, and political oppression which might be the underlying components for struggling within the oPt. With a purpose to alleviate the social struggling of Palestinians and to stop their victimization, interventions that acknowledge the political nature of psychological well being ill-being and promote a human rights strategy are wanted.


This paper relies on the assumption that to be able to make sense of trauma, it’s essential to concentrate on its correlation with human rights violations. As psychological well being professionals, we’re conscious that political battle, financial hardships, and social stress have an effect on psychological well being. But there’s a tendency to miss the social-political actuality of the folks we’re working with by adhering to the idea of neutrality. With a purpose to actually perceive social struggling within the occupied Palestinian territories (oPt), such struggling must be linked to the prevalence of human rights violations. This may be achieved by differentiating between a trauma framework and a human rights framework. The previous goals at offering a vocabulary for human struggling whereas the latter could be thought to be an ethical order meant to stop struggling and restore social justice. An integrative mannequin would enable for a perspective that focuses on the contextualization of traumatic occasions by together with historic and sociopolitical dimensions and an intersectional strategy to trauma.[1]

This paper argues that the buildings of oppression and racial discrimination that decide the lifetime of Palestinians can finest be understood when referring to the framework of settler colonialism. Settler colonialism is organized across the acquisition of land, with the purpose of eliminating and changing the native inhabitants.[2] Understanding Israel as a settler-colonial venture, firstly, calls into query its portrayal as a liberal democracy.[3] It contests the declare of Israel that it encountered “a land with out folks for a folks with out land” and challenges Israel’s assertion of (1) normality, as a standard democracy and Western society, and (2) exceptionalism, which permits Israel to uphold a brutal system of occupation and to exempt itself from norms and obligations of human rights and worldwide regulation.[4] We contend that the Palestinian inhabitants is dealing with bodily and symbolic elimination that requires a praxis of decolonization and liberation as a solution. The framework of settler-colonialism permits an alignment with different Indigenous and native struggles and, most significantly, dismantles Israel’s declare of exceptionalism by bringing it into comparability with different settler-colonial formations.[5]

On this paper, we start by offering an summary of the best to well being as expressed by the United Nations Particular Rapporteur on the best to well being and linking it to particular challenges within the oPt. Subsequent, we assess the method of depoliticization of psychological well being within the oPt, with a specific concentrate on the position of worldwide humanitarian assist. We then contest the subject of neutrality in psychological well being, pointing to the necessity to comply with an strategy of ethic “non-neutrality” by arguing that the concentrate on social and structural discrimination needs to be thought of an moral duty of well being professionals making an attempt to alleviate the struggling of their sufferers. Adopting a liberation psychology framework can strengthen this strategy and assist make sense of struggling and put it in relation to the situations that create it. We conclude the paper by highlighting the necessity for psychological well being professionals to undertake a human rights perspective to be able to elevate consciousness of social injustices that result in the event of trauma.

The best to well being

The best of everybody to the enjoyment of the very best attainable customary of bodily and psychological well being, inclusive of all individuals with disabilities, as articulated by United Nations Particular Rapporteur Dainius Pūras, has not solely been an necessary step ahead in making states conscious of their tasks to supply high quality well being care providers however has additionally led to 2 United Nations resolutions saying psychological well being as a human proper. The best to well being strategy has been instrumental in highlighting the indivisibility and interconnectedness of all human rights. It engages critically with the dominance of the biomedical mannequin in psychological well being care and the overemphasis on specialised well being care that’s susceptible to reinforcing energy imbalances.[6] By means of the over-reliance on biomedical interventions aimed on the particular person over community-based well being initiatives, consideration is shifted away from psychosocial and sociopolitical determinants of well being and from structural causes of poor psychological well being.[7] A psychological well being strategy that’s not based mostly on the success of all human rights, inclusive of the rules of empowerment and participation, and that doesn’t body psychological well being as a consideration of social justice is more likely to reproduce inequalities and structural boundaries.[8] We are going to present in the middle of this paper that Palestinian colleagues have been advocating for a larger understanding and acknowledgment of the influence of social and political components, resembling structural oppression and systematic violence, on psychological well being within the oPt, the dearth of which is undermining a rights-based strategy to well being. The safety of all types of violence is expressed by the Particular Rapporteur as a key factor within the realization of the best to well being:

Violence must be addressed in a complete and proactive manner, not solely as a trigger of significant violations of human rights, but in addition as a consequence of an absence of political will to successfully put money into human rights, together with the best to well being.[9] 

The community-wide social struggling of Palestinians associated to the political violence of the occupation and the settler-colonial regime must be acknowledged as one of the crucial important underlying causes for psychological ill-health within the oPt.[10]

The best to well being within the oPt is additional severely undermined resulting from restrictions on actions, notably within the Gaza Strip, which have an effect on not solely the overall inhabitants but in addition ambulance drivers and medical employees. Entry to Jerusalem for medical causes depends on permits, and even emergency instances are often delayed at checkpoints. The de-development of well being infrastructure on account of the Israeli-imposed blockade within the Gaza Strip has led to shortages of drugs, gear, and medical provides.[11]

The best to well being relates not solely to these in want of providers but in addition to well being care staff.[12] There was a worrying tendency to criminalize humanitarian assist and human rights work around the globe, which has develop into observable within the oPt as effectively.[13] In the course of the Nice March of Return, consisting of large-scale demonstrations within the Gaza Strip in 2018, Israel particularly focused well being care staff, killing three medical staff and injuring not less than 115 paramedics and medical staff by dwell ammunition and tear gasoline inhalation.[14] The case of 21-year-old Palestinian medic Razan Al-Najjar, who was killed whereas carrying a white coat and attending to injured demonstrators, has obtained huge public consideration and outcry.[15] The current labeling of seven Palestinian human rights and civil society organizations devoted to defending human rights, kids’s rights, political prisoners’ rights, and gender justice as “terrorist organizations” has induced widespread concern.[16] These measures by Israel could be thought to be a instrument of the oppressor to silence these in search of to carry it accountable for human rights violations and as a direct assault on the best to well being by the focusing on of organizations that promote worldwide humanitarian regulation and supply peaceable actions for civil society.

Whereas the best to well being stipulates entry to high quality well being care, consideration must be placed on what sort of well being care is being propagated by worldwide funding. We study on this paper how organizations within the oPt are depending on using Western biomedical remedies to be able to obtain donor funding. The historic divide between psychological and bodily well being and the ensuing underfunding of psychological well being providers—with a simultaneous focus totally on segregated psychiatric establishments—is one other barrier to qualitative well being within the oPt, one which has solely been exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic.[17]

The Particular Rapporteur has additionally addressed the problem of stigma and discrimination in relation to the best to well being and has known as for measures to make sure that skilled well being providers don’t perpetuate stigmatization.[18] The prevalence of judgmental and biased attitudes of service suppliers within the oPt towards survivors of violence and folks affected by psychological well being issues doesn’t foster belief within the system. There’s a tendency in society to treat folks in want of extra specialised psychological well being providers as lazy or as missing religion or will. Unfavorable perceptions are heightened with regards to survivors of gender-based violence. Communities typically understand girls who search out shelters or exterior assist as scandalizing non-public household issues or breaking households aside. The scenario is especially harsh for ladies residing in East Jerusalem who’re ruled by Israeli regulation. Involving Israeli authorities creates an additional barrier in in search of assist and makes them extra susceptible to bias and unfavourable perceptions from their group.

The depoliticization of psychological well being within the occupied Palestinian territories

Till the Nineteen Eighties, the worldwide group didn’t notably concentrate on the psychological well being of Palestinians. Within the context of the primary Intifada, the primary rebellion in opposition to the Israeli occupation, and the related reporting on Israel’s army violence, not solely was the time period “trauma” used an increasing number of often, nevertheless it additionally turned a reason behind concern for the humanitarian group.[19] This growth coincided with a rising tendency to medicalize and pathologize human experiences, which was exemplified by the emergence of the post-traumatic stress dysfunction (PTSD).

Derek Summerfield (1999) emphasizes that PTSD could be thought to be the invention moderately than the invention of a psychiatric analysis.[20] PTSD is a psychiatric dysfunction that happens after experiencing or witnessing a traumatic occasion, resembling a pure catastrophe, a terrorist act, battle, or rape, in addition to after being threatened with dying, sexual violence, or critical harm.[21] The analysis first turned official in 1980, within the wake of the aftermath of the Vietnam Struggle, when antiwar activists used it to demand specialised assist for veterans. The PTSD analysis opened up a authentic sufferer standing for the veterans along with a incapacity pension.[22] Since then, the analysis has had an enduring affect on how experiences of violence are understood and communicated. It’s subsequently inevitable to see that the “discovery” of the analysis of PTSD has sociocultural roots.[23] These roots lie in Western psychological fashions that declare that PTSD is an issue that may be quantified, measured, and handled by specialists. Ideas resembling PTSD and the ensuing psychological and psychotherapeutic therapy strategies reinforce the hegemony and legitimacy of Western experience in humanitarian assist:

There’s too typically a one-way switch, usually north-south, and the query is who has the facility to outline the issue and make these definitions stick? There was little impartial analysis of the advantage of trauma programmes however their attractiveness for donors could also be as a result of they provide a modern, time restricted and apparently politically impartial type of intervention that avoids the controversial questions wars throw up.[24]

Summerfield factors out one other difficulty related to the PTSD analysis: the issue of decontextualization. The uncritical adaptation of the idea and the language of trauma harbors the hazard of depoliticizing and decontextualizing social injustice and the political and sociopolitical situations of trauma. By decreasing trauma to a person psychological struggling, the historical past of colonization and the still-existing hegemonic energy imbalance are obscured.[25] That is notably worrying within the context of humanitarian assist, the place the required reflection on energy and beliefs and associated colonialist tendencies is usually missing.[26]

The medical and medical trauma discourse is subsequently seen critically, particularly in opposition to the background of the disregard towards the sociopolitical context of traumatization.[27] Palestinian colleagues have been very vocal about declaring the issues of reinforcing the analysis of PTSD within the oPt, as is the technique and customized by many worldwide organizations. One drawback is that PTSD is characterised by the truth that the traumatic occasion is prior to now (“put up”). This time period is subsequently hardly relevant in a scenario of ongoing violations, as within the oPt.[28] Second, the prevailing battle and the related systematic discrimination and human rights abuses is what needs to be pathologized, not folks’s response to it. The uncritical adoption of the trauma context strikes the narrative away from the social and political context and underlying causes for trauma and reduces it to particular person psychological struggling, thus stigmatizing folks.[29] The sociocultural conditioning of ache and traumatization requires an strategy that’s devoted to the collective which means of struggling and that strengthens the which means of social cohesion and solidarity.[30] In any other case, social struggling shall be mistakenly identified as a medical pathology.

Consequently, an individualistic strategy doesn’t suffice when trauma is brought on by colonial practices on the collective stage.[31] This turned particularly obvious throughout the second Intifada in 2000, the place, in distinction to the native civil society organizations throughout the first Intifada, nationwide and worldwide nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) failed to supply psychological well being providers in direct relation to the army violence of the occupation:

Constrained by the provision of funding and the political agenda of the funders, one can safely conclude that the work of those organizations is something however praxis in the direction of liberation and social justice for the communities they purport to serve.[32]

It appears subsequently mandatory and pressing to take a look at the results of political and systematic violence on Palestinian psychological well being to be able to strengthen the resilience of communities, as a substitute of individualizing their struggling. This may be achieved by shifting away from a psychological well being framework that regards them as particular person victims affected by political violence and towards a human rights framework that sees them as rights holders and survivors of a collective expertise of violence inside a social and political context.[33] Additionally it is mandatory to emphasise contextual variations and culture-specific traits as a substitute of pretending that reactions to trauma are common.[34]

Worldwide assist particularly has been complicit in undermining the resilience of communities by relating to them as “medicalised objects of struggling” moderately than as lively brokers of resilience and resistance.[35] Focusing solely on biomedical components signifies that calls for for justice and reparation are uncared for or put within the background. These tendencies correlate with neoliberal insurance policies and worldviews that put particular person duty above social accountability. This strategy fosters the assumption {that a} “profitable life” is linked to not political conditions or social situations however moderately to the person’s capacity or lack of ability to form his or her life.[36] Focus is subsequently shifted from these committing crimes (and who needs to be held accountable) to the person who’s struggling. Additional, neoliberal insurance policies regard well being providers as an financial commodity, thus shifting well being providers from the duty of the state to the non-public sector.[37]

With a purpose to obtain financing from worldwide NGOs, many native organizations undertake the trauma discourse and a biomedical strategy of their packages. Cindy Sousa and David J. Marshall analyze the phrasing that native Palestinian organizations use of their venture proposals when making use of for funding from worldwide donors.[38] They conclude that the underlying supply of psychological health-ill being—the Israeli occupation—is left imprecise or not talked about in any respect. As an alternative, the potential violence of Palestinian youth or their “academic, social and behavioural issues” are recognized as in want of intervention.[39] Equally, the proposed interventions don’t concentrate on private empowerment or political advocacy to alter the system of political violence, as a substitute individualizing and depoliticizing human rights violations. Many proposals strategically undertake and reproduce a Western neoliberal framework of trauma to be able to be eligible for funding.[40] These observations are consistent with our personal experiences working in native and worldwide organizations within the oPt. On account of worldwide funding, psychological assist packages are provided, however political fears and considerations result in their political decontextualizing. Consequently, nearly all of packages happen in a political vacuum.[41] Worldwide humanitarian organizations aren’t solely depending on Israel for issuing visas but in addition affected by delegitimization, in addition to entry and administrative restrictions.[42] As an alternative of difficult the system of structural violence and oppression, many organizations are complicit in ignoring these components. They’re, nevertheless, additionally integral to the depoliticization of collective considerations from the sociopolitical context by the method of “NGO-ization.” NGO-ization highlights the institutionalization, professionalization, depoliticization, and demobilization of actions for social change.[43] Depoliticization processes have performed an enormous half in weakening efforts for social change in Palestine, not solely in regard to psychological well being but in addition, as an example, in undermining nationwide sovereignty and the ladies’s motion.[44] Ibrahim Makkawi presents an intriguing overview of the historic growth of civil societies that have been instrumental in sustaining the battle for liberation and offering psychological assist for victims of violence.[45] After the Oslo settlement in 1993, Palestine was flooded by principally Western-funded NGOs, leading to a disappearance of grassroots civil organizations. Whereas these NGOs are nonetheless working with Palestinian communities, they apply individualistic, depoliticized, and decontextualized interventions of counseling and psychotherapy. With a purpose to problem these approaches of individualization, psychological well being professionals have emphasised the collective publicity of Palestinians to the political violence of the settler-colonial regime, resembling shelling, tear gassings, and the destruction of properties, in addition to seeing others being humiliated, injured, arrested, and killed. The concentrate on collective experiences stands in stark distinction to the tendency of the worldwide group to concentrate on biomedical strategies and particular person pathologies.[46]

Even if nearly all of mainstream humanitarian responses show neutrality relating to the political context in Palestine, analysis exhibits that duty and justice are on the coronary heart of restoration.[47] Palestinian resistance, nevertheless, is criminalized by situations on assist which might be put ahead by the European Union or the US Company for Worldwide Growth by their “counter-terror measures,” which require civil society organizations to vet their beneficiaries, companions, and subcontractors to show they aren’t cooperating with anybody designated as “terrorist.”[48] These measures must be put into perspective when it comes to the continuing settler-colonial regime and its effort to manage the Palestinian inhabitants.

The position of psychological well being professionals

Psychological well being counseling and psychotherapy are sometimes perceived as power-free and impartial areas. Nonetheless, they’ve all the time been, and are nonetheless right this moment, deeply political.[49] The pretext to behave neutrally and objectively can obfuscate dependence on energy relations. Additional, by taking a impartial position as a psychological well being skilled and by remaining silent on problems with violence or human rights violations, a place can unconsciously be taken and signaled to the affected person. If the aim of psychotherapy is the liberation from social constraints and the power to dwell in freedom and safety, it’s mandatory to maneuver from a place of passive remark to a rising consciousness of political components that result in human struggling:

Ignoring such components [economics, class, violence, leadership, ethnicity, etc.] in remedy constitutes a type of malpractice. Ignoring them exterior the clinic constitutes a really harmful political place, one that can not be reconciled with basic psychological moral codes. Whereas aspiring to alter and effectively being, therapists can not simply stand aloof and passively (and most unwittingly) participate within the continuation of hardship and misery. Remaining silent, ignorant or passive would make us accomplices to the manufacturing of human struggling, and would represent a betrayal of our fundamental values as therapists.[50]

We don’t recommend that each psychotherapist or psychological well being skilled ought to essentially develop into a political activist. A political stance could be taken exactly by practising psychotherapy and by being conscious of the varied sociopolitical components and the best way they form lives. Nonetheless, if this attitude is missing, there’s a danger of neglecting or veiling politically related situations and misinterpreting them as intrapsychic states of struggling.

Liberation psychology

When fascinated with psychological well being observe in Palestine, it’s related to place it into perspective with the liberation psychology strategy developed by Ignacio Martón-Baró and with theories of decolonization by Frantz Fanon. Fanon is understood for his involvement in struggles in opposition to racism, colonialism, and oppression and has contributed extensively to research of the psychopathology of colonization. He has been instrumental in connecting psychological principle and praxis with political violence and types of oppression in colonial programs. He stresses the assumption that the psychological issues of people can’t be separated from their cultural, social, and historic background. By referring to a collective framework, Fanon immediately objects to European narcissistic and individualistic psychological pondering.[51] He has additional contributed to an understanding of the impacts of subjugation on the psychological mindset of the oppressed by drawing on the phenomenon of the internalization of inferiority, the “epidermalization of inferiority.”[52] For Fanon, the answer to breaking the cycle of internalization is to be present in resistance and in directing emotions outward, to those that oppress, as a substitute of inward.[53]

Martín-Baró, in following Paolo Friere’s pondering on “important consciousness,” considers that liberation could be achieved by important self-examination or “conscientization.” This course of requires understanding the “mechanisms of oppression and dehumanization” by specializing in the situations that create trauma.[54] The position of the psychologist could be “to look at these dehumanizing relations and to play a task within the collective political venture of fixing them.”[55]

Though psychotherapy is historically thought of a extremely individualistic course of, current publications have pointed to the inherent political dimension of psychoanalytic observe. The compelling publication Psychoanalysis below Occupation by Lara and Stephen Sheehi highlights how Palestinian clinicians regard the observe of psychotherapy as a type of resistance and a counter-measure to makes an attempt to erase the nationwide identification. The lived actuality of settler-colonial practices and the violence of the occupation regime are being confronted as a way of conscientization.[56] Psychotherapy thus possesses the potential for social and political mobilization and for attending to these goal teams which might be particularly marginalized and susceptible because of the occupation practices. One in every of these teams are feminine ex-prisoners, whose standing in Palestinian society is advanced and who, opposite to male ex-prisoners, aren’t glorified due to their involvement within the nationwide battle. One of many authors, in cooperation with the human rights group Addameer, supplies psychological well being providers to a bunch of feminine ex-prisoners. As an alternative of pathologizing their involvement within the liberation battle, we regard their want for freedom and for nationwide sovereignty as a liberation from an imposed state of helplessness. Offering providers to ex-prisoners is especially necessary due to their marginalization because of the aforementioned constrictions imposed on assist in regard to terrorism. When Addameer was not too long ago raided and forcibly closed by Israeli occupation forces as one of many seven human rights organizations that have been labeled as terrorist organizations, the remedy classes have been held by way of Zoom to be able to assure the continuation of the providers.[57] Our expertise in Palestine has proven that providing psychological well being providers requires us to study from the experiences and adapt to the wants of every group, even in unprecedented conditions.

Engaged on psychological well being in Palestine obligates practitioners to always confront the settler-colonial system of energy and violence. Relying solely on analysis and particular person remedy strategies doesn’t replicate the truth of working as a psychological well being supplier. One of many authors has been concerned within the case of Ahmad Manasra, a 20-year-old Palestinian who has been detained in Israeli prisons since he was 14 years outdated, regardless of affected by critical psychological well being situations.[58] Being a part of a global marketing campaign, advocating for the rights of psychological well being sufferers, elevating consciousness, supporting the dad and mom of Ahmad, and writing stories for Israeli courts are as a lot a part of the work of a psychological well being practitioner in Palestine as classical psychotherapeutic observe. These experiences of working below a settler-colonial regime stand in stark distinction to claims of moral neutrality, as is mentioned beneath.

In direction of an ethic non-neutrality

The declare that the observe of psychotherapy is carried out independently of the cultural and political context deprives psychological well being professionals of the power to work in environments during which the political impacts the non-public and particular person sphere.[59] That is particularly related within the oPt, the place the occupation impacts each facet of life. Right here, we are going to discover in additional depth why the declare of neutrality within the psychological well being sector is ethically problematic and why remaining “impartial” or “goal” is a luxurious reserved for many who don’t belong to the marginalized group.

There seems to be a major distortion within the subject of psychological well being about what skilled neutrality entails. Neutrality is outlined as sustaining “an observing stance, whereas avoiding siding with any of the forces concerned within the affected person’s battle” or as refraining from “expressing judgments.”[60] Hollander highlights how psychoanalytical organizations didn’t converse out about gross human rights violations throughout the army dictatorship in Argentina, as a substitute distancing themselves from the political and social context by claiming skilled neutrality or “abstinence.”[61] Solely a small variety of psychoanalysts selected to observe psychotherapy by highlighting the dialectical relationship between the subjectivity of sufferers and their social actuality. These psychological well being professionals believed that to be able to be conscientious psychotherapists, they wanted to take an oppositional place to the oppressor and inflictor of ache and violence:

Beneath such situations, assuming a place of neutrality would contravene the opportunity of securing the belief and alliance of 1’s sufferers. These psychoanalysts thus embraced a therapeutic perspective they termed “ethic nonneutrality.” Within the context of working with victims of state terror, there was no room to be a bystander, even throughout the psychoanalytic body.[62]

Disregarding the social and political sphere as an integral a part of our personal and our sufferers’ lives would block off dialogue and reflection of intrapsychic processes. Each particular person intrapsychic struggling and sociopolitical processes must be acknowledged. Treating trauma as a purely intrapsychic course of would deny the social dimension of struggling. Nonetheless, if the main target is positioned solely on the political and collective elements of trauma, the actual particular person wounds are uncared for.[63] This difficult dichotomy must be always mirrored.

Concerning neutrality as a therapeutic ultimate discourages skilled engagement with related political matters, ethical considerations, and social challenges of our time. The technique of depoliticization very simply turns into a cover-up for unequal energy dynamics.[64] For many years, political components resembling gender, ethnicity, class, faith, and politics have been thought to be irrelevant to psychotherapeutic practices. Since then, professionals have develop into conscious of the truth that by not talking up about social and structural injustices, they develop into complicit in a system that oppresses others. Psychological well being professionals work with sufferers to make sure that they dwell bodily and mentally protected, reflecting with them on how they will higher look after themselves or others. Ignoring how political components result in human struggling would represent a gross malpractice, which can’t be reconciled with our moral codes as therapists.[65] Taking a stand in opposition to structural injustice is the situation for empowerment and for assuaging struggling: by being conscious of the causes of social struggling of our sufferers, we might help cut back self-blame, victimhood, and helplessness.

A name for skilled solidarity and social justice

Psychological well being professionals, amongst different professionals within the social and well being sector, play a novel position in advocating for skilled solidarity and social justice within the face of human rights violations. Since social struggling tends to stay hidden and invisible, it’s among the many tasks of pros to battle in opposition to this social invisibility by turning into a spokesperson and by advocating for social insurance policies.[66] There’s a political significance to social struggling: “Social struggling is therefore a part of a social critique that can be a social analysis and an try to seek out political options.”[67] Up to now, as already outlined on this paper, psychological well being discourses have concentrated to a a lot larger extent on the internal psychic situations of struggling. Personal struggling must be translated into public struggling with the assistance of a psychological well being skilled who denies neither the surface situations nor the intrapsychic struggling.[68]

To victims of human rights violations, other than the therapy of their particular person wounds, social justice is the best and reparative methodology of assuaging struggling. In any other case, as Chris Beyrer rightly asks, if human rights violations obtain impunity, what hope do survivors of injustice have?[69] This query is especially related within the oPt, the place settler violence is a part of the on a regular basis lifetime of Palestinians. Studies from nationwide and worldwide organizations display that Israeli safety forces not solely enable settlers to make use of drive in opposition to Palestinians and their property but in addition escort them to or take part within the acts of violence.[70] The vast majority of perpetrators of violence are exempt from punishment and aren’t held accountable for the results of their actions: a research by the human rights group Yesh Din revealed that between 2005 and 2019, 91% of investigations into settler violence have been closed with out cost.[71]

The best to well being can’t be exercised if different human rights are undermined, making it important to make sure that the trauma debate is included inside a wider human rights framework.[72] Psychological well being professionals working with victims of human rights violations dedicated in Chile within the Nineteen Eighties and 90s have spoken out concerning the inadequacy of the time period “dysfunction.”[73] They argue that by diagnosing victims as affected by a dysfunction, acts of cruelty are justified. Particular person and specialised care ought to not at all be denied to people. Nonetheless, “it makes an unlimited distinction that we regard them much less as individually disturbed and extra as individuals struggling the results of a disturbed society.”[74] When sociopolitical acts of injustice—as an example, torture—aren’t declared as such and are as a substitute deemed particular person experiences, we play into the arms of the victimizer and repeat their denial, thus victimizing the survivor yet again.[75]

We consider that this dedication to social justice and solidarity is especially known as for within the oPt, the place psychological well being professionals have lengthy been advocating for a human rights discourse. This shift in perspective permits for a concentrate on the results of colonial practices and systematic violence on the psychological well-being of Palestinians and highlights the truth that these are probably the most related and profound causes of group issues within the oPt. Additionally it is a strong instrument for taking a stance in opposition to the so-called skilled neutrality of psychological well being professionals by placing the sociocultural setting and situations of oppression, discrimination, and injustice into focus and utilizing this information for well being issues of people and communities.[76] But we additionally agree that throughout the well being sector “there’s a seen decline within the willingness to tackle these points as soon as thought of acceptable and even essential. One can solely posit it is because they’re now thought of too controversial and even radical.”[77] Supporting publications that make sure the well being and human rights of all folks is one measure recommended by Sofia Gruskin to counteract this tendency.[78] This has direct bearings on the oPt, the place we see a common scarcity of Palestinian-generated analysis compared to different nations. Taking part in conferences requires paying a registration payment, which places an incredible monetary burden on Palestinian well being professionals, often constituting half a month’s wage. Even when convention charges are lined, journey restrictions pose one other barrier in attending skilled occasions in different nations. Likewise, many publications in scientific journals are contingent on submission charges.

New Israeli guidelines on entry to the West Financial institution, known as “Process for Entry and Residence for Foreigners in Judea and Samaria Space,” which got here into impact on October 20, 2022, have stirred outrage amongst Palestinian authorized specialists and lecturers.[79] The algorithm regulates who’s allowed to enter the West Financial institution, educate in Palestinian universities, or go to universities as a overseas scholar; it additionally regulates what sorts of organizations are allowed to host volunteers. These guidelines are thought to be a brand new transfer to limit tutorial {and professional} trade and to additional silence and isolate Palestinian students.[80]

Additionally it is value mentioning that criticism of Israel’s insurance policies and the occupation is all too shortly labeled as “anti-Semitic,” notably when adhering to the definition of antisemitism adopted by the Worldwide Holocaust Remembrance Alliance in 2016, which as a rule is used to stifle any criticism of Israel.[81] It’s a very highly effective and efficient technique to silence folks and hold them from making statements about Israel’s oppressive political system. Above all, it’s an try and delegitimize pro-Palestinian actions. This technique has, sadly, additionally resulted in instilling concern amongst psychological well being professionals when it comes to talking out about Israel’s human rights violations, and often ends in avoidance of those matters for concern of non-public {and professional} backlash. All these obstacles have a major influence on counteracting mainstream concepts of psychological well being within the oPt and on permitting Palestinian professionals to make their voices heard.


Solidarity begins by acknowledging human rights violations and by placing the blame on the victimizer, not the victims who react to those experiences. Who higher than psychological well being professionals are capable of perceive how fixed concern, ache, and terror affect people? As psychotherapists or psychological well being staff, we’re confronted with the query of how we regard our moral position and the way we intend to behave on it:

Can we see ourselves as an lively a part of society, or will we take into account the therapeutic area a “nonpart” of society? Work with trauma victims confronts us with questions of social involvement which might be inescapable, even when we’re not all the time conscious of them.[82]

Nonetheless, trauma principle has reached an deadlock worldwide: it has developed right into a medical, symptom-oriented strategy that produces strategies of remedy that stubbornly disregard sociopolitical discourses and that disguise social and political issues as pathological issues.[83]

Typically, there are little efforts to deal with the results of trauma on a global coverage stage. But to be able to reply to trauma within the oPt, a political resolution is required not solely to cut back bodily and psychological threats but in addition to ascertain historic, political, and ethical justice.[84] Impunity could be understood not simply because the absence of court docket sentences in opposition to human rights offenders however in a broader sociocultural sense because the societal negation of the struggling of victims.[85] There isn’t a doubt that authorized, social, and ethical justice have a reparative operate, each for the person and for society as an entire. Consequently, when solidarity and requires justice are silenced by the highly effective occasion, when Israel just isn’t held accountable for its violation of worldwide legal guidelines, and when victims of violations are framed as terrorists, the dearth of worldwide solidarity and efforts of redemption will have an effect on the psychological well-being of Palestinians.[86] If the prevention of trauma is a critical purpose of the worldwide group, focus must be placed on the basis causes of trauma and on calls for of social justice. This is able to allow a paradigm shift from the query “What’s incorrect with you?” to “What’s occurred to you?”[87] This strategy would problem the “absence of a collective ethical outrage and a deafening silence on huge violations of well being and human rights,” which has develop into observable in right this moment’s world and poses one of many greatest challenges these days.[88]

A stronger understanding of the political and social implications of trauma and a extra lively position in relation to social injustices and human rights violations are important in opposition to the background of the moral requirements of our occupation. As psychological well being professionals, our dedication to advancing human rights could be proven by highlighting the pathogenic context during which trauma develops and by demanding social justice on a political stage.

Maria Helbich, MSc, is a psychotherapist from Vienna, Austria, specializing in gender-based violence and trauma and is at the moment based mostly in Palestine.

Samah Jabr is a psychiatrist who practices in East Jerusalem and the West Financial institution and is

head of the Psychological Well being Unit throughout the Palestinian Ministry of Well being.

Please handle correspondence to Maria Helbich. E-mail:

Competing pursuits: None declared.

Copyright © 2022 Helbich and Jabr. That is an open entry article distributed below the phrases of the Artistic Commons Attribution Non-Business License (, which allows unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and replica.


[1] L. D. Butler and F. M. Critelli, “Traumatic Expertise, Human Rights Violations, and Their Intersection,” in L. D. Butler, F. M. Critelli, and J. Carello (eds), Trauma and Human Rights: Integrating Approaches to Handle Human Struggling (London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2019).

[2] R. Busbridge, “Israel-Palestine and the Settler Colonial ‘Flip’: From Interpretation to Decolonization,” Idea, Tradition and Society 35/1 (2018).

[3] I. Pappé, “Shtetl Colonialism: First and Final Impressions of Indigeneity by Colonised Colonisers,” Settler Colonial Research 2/1 (2012).

[4] D. Lloyd, “Settler Colonialism and the State of Exception: The Instance of Palestine/Israel,” Settler Colonial Research 2/1 (2012), p. 62. See additionally R. Lentin, “Race and Surveillance within the Settler Colony: The Case of Israeli Rule over Palestine,” Palgrave Communications 3/1 (2017).

[5] O. J. Salamanca, M. Qato, Okay. Rabie, and S. Samour, “Previous Is Current: Settler Colonialism in Palestine,” Settler Colonial Research 2/1 (2012).

[6] Human Rights Council, Report of the UN Particular Rapporteur on the Proper of Everybody to the Enjoyment of the Highest Attainable Customary of Bodily and Psychological Well being, UN Doc. A/HRC/35/21 (2017); United Nations Normal Meeting, Interim Report of the UN Particular Rapporteur on the Proper of Everybody to the Enjoyment of the Highest Attainable Customary of Bodily and Psychological Well being, UN Doc. A/73/216 (2018); Human Rights Council, Report of the UN Particular Rapporteur on the Proper of Everybody to the Enjoyment of the Highest Attainable Customary of Bodily and Psychological Well being, UN Doc. A/HRC/41/34 (2019); Human Rights Council, Decision 36/25, UN Doc. A/HRC/36/25 (2017).

[7] L. Cosgrove and A. F. Shaughnessy, “Psychological Well being as a Fundamental Human Proper and the Interference of Commercialized Science,” Well being and Human Rights Journal 22 (2020).

[8] F. Mahomed, “Addressing the Downside of Extreme Underinvestment in Psychological Well being and Nicely-Being from a Human Rights Perspective,” Well being and Human Rights Journal 22 (2020).

[9] Human Rights Council, Report of the UN Particular Rapporteur on the Proper of Everybody to the Enjoyment of the Highest Attainable Customary of Bodily and Psychological Well being, UN Doc. A/HRC/29/33 (2015).

[10] See, for instance, B. Wispelwey and Y. Abu Jamei, “The Nice March of Return: Classes from Gaza on Mass Resistance and Psychological Well being,” Well being and Human Rights Journal 22 (2020); R. Giacaman, “Social Struggling, the Painful Wounds Inside,” American Journal of Public Well being 107/3 (2017); M. Helbich and S. Jabr, “Psychological Well being below Occupation: An Evaluation of the De-politicization of the Psychological Well being Discourse in Palestine and a Name for a Human Rights Strategy,” Worldwide Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare (2021).

[11] Al-Haq, Parallel Report back to the UN Committee on Financial, Social and Cultural Rights for Its Listing of Points on The State of Palestine’s Preliminary Report (2021).

[12] Human Rights Council (2015, see notice 9).

[13] L. Rubenstein, “Struggle, Political Battle, and the Proper to Well being,” Well being and Human Rights Journal 22 (2020).

[14] Amnesty Worldwide, “Six Months On: Gaza’s Nice March of Return,”

[15] D. Mills, M. Gilbert, and B. Wispelwey, “Gaza’s Nice March of Return: Humanitarian Emergency and the Silence of Worldwide Well being Professionals,” BMJ World Well being (2019).

[16] See, for instance, “UN Specialists Condemn Israel’s Designation of Palestine Rights Defenders as Terrorist Organisations,” UN Information,; Workplace of the United Nations Excessive Commissioner for Human Rights, “UN Specialists Condemn Israeli Suppression of Palestinian Human Rights Organisations,”

[17] W. Hammoudeh, S. Jabr, M. Helbich, and C. Sousa, “On Psychological Well being amid COVID-19,” Journal of Palestine Research 49/4 (2020).

[18] Human Rights Council, Report of the UN Particular Rapporteur (2017, see notice 6).

[19] Y. Rabaia, R. Giacaman, and V. Nguyen-Gillham, “Violence and Adolescent Psychological Well being within the Occupied Palestinian Territory: A Contextual Strategy,” Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Well being 22/3 (2015). See additionally R. Giacaman, Y. Rabaia, V. Nguyen-Gillham, et al., “Psychological Well being, Social Misery and Political Oppression: The Case of the Occupied Palestinian Territory,” World Public Well being 6/5 (2011).

[20] D. Summerfield, “A Critique of Seven Assumptions behind Psychological Trauma

Programmes in Struggle-Affected Areas,” Social Science and Medication 48 (1999).

[21] American Psychiatric Affiliation, “What Is Posttraumatic Stress Dysfunction?,”

[22] Summerfield (1999, see notice 20). See additionally D. Becker, Die Erfindung des Traumas: Verflochtene Geschichten (Gießen: Psychosozial Verlag, 2014).

[23] Ibid.

[24] Ibid., p. 1459.

[25] L. Meari, “Reconsidering Trauma: In direction of a Palestinian Neighborhood Psychology,” Journal of Neighborhood Psychology 43/1 (2015).

[26] Becker (2014, see notice 22).

[27] P. Andreatta, “Traumatisierung von Kindern durch Krieg und Flucht sowie ein kritischer Blick auf den klinischen Traumadiskurs,“ Psychologie & Gesellschaftskritik 42/2 (2018). See additionally Becker (2014, see notice 22); D. Becker, “Migration, Flucht und Trauma: Der Trauma-Diskurs und seine politischen und gesellschaftlichen Bedeutungen,” in E. Forster, I. Bieringer, and F. Lamott (eds), Migration und Trauma: Beiträge zu einer reflexiven Flüchtlingsarbeit (Münster: LIT-Verlag, 2003); D. Summerfield and F. Hume, “Struggle and Posttraumatic Stress Dysfunction: The Query of Social Context,” Journal of Nervous and Psychological Illness 181/8 (1993), p. 522; A. Younger, The Concord of Illusions: Inventing Submit-Traumatic Stress Dysfunction (Princeton: Princeton College Press, 1995).

[28] S. Jabr, “What Palestinians Expertise Goes past the PTSD Label,” Center East Eye (February 7, 2019),

https://www.middleeasteye.web/opinion/what-palestinians-experience-goes-beyond-ptsd-label. See additionally O. Goldhill, “Ongoing Traumatic Stress Dysfunction” (January 2019),; A. H. Afana, D. Pedersen, H. Rønsbo, et al., “Endurance Is to Be Proven on the First Blow: Social Representations and Reactions to Traumatic Experiences within the Gaza Strip,” Traumatology 16/4 (2010).

[29] Meari (see notice 25); Becker (2014, see notice 22).

[30] R. Giacaman, R. Khatib, L. Shabaneh, et al., “Well being Standing and Well being Companies within the Occupied Palestinian Territory,” Lancet 373 (2009).

[31] I. A. Makkawi, “In direction of an Rising Paradigm of Important Neighborhood Psychology in Palestine,” Journal of Important Psychology, Counselling and Psychotherapy 9/2 (2009).

[32] Ibid., p. 80.

[33] C. Sousa and D. J. Marshall, “Political Violence and Psychological Well being: Results of Neoliberalism and the Position of Worldwide Social Work Follow,” Worldwide Social Work 60/4 (2015).

[34] D. Summerfield, “Addressing Human Response to Struggle and Atrocity: Main Challenges in Analysis and Practices and the Limitations of Western Psychiatric Fashions,” in R. J. Kleber, C. R. Figley, and B. P. R. Gersons (eds), Past Trauma: Cultural and Societal Dynamics (New York: Springer Science + Enterprise Media, 1995). See additionally Becker (2014, see notice 22).

[35] Sousa and Marshall (2015, see notice 33), p. 4.

[36] A. Grubner, Die Macht der Psychotherapie im Neoliberalismus. Eine Streitschrift (Wien: Mandelbaum Kritik & Utopie, 2017).

[37] A. R. Chapman, “The Proper to Well being: Then, Now and a Name to Arms,” Well being and Human Rights Journal 22/1 (2020).

[38] Sousa and Marshall (2015, see notice 33).

[39] Ibid., p. 5.

[40] Ibid.

[41] Becker (2014, see notice 22).

[42] P. Beaumont, “Israel Denies Visas to Employees from ‘Hostile’ Human Rights Watch,” Guardian (February 24, 2017),; United Nations Workplace for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, “Humanitarian Operations Undermined by Delegitimization, Entry Restrictions, and Administrative Constraints” (2019), material/humanitarian-operations-undermined-delegitimization-access-restrictions-and-administrative.

[43] A. Choudry and D. Kapoor, “Introduction: NGOization: Complicity, Contradictions and Prospects,” in A. Choudry and D. Kapoor (eds), NGOization: Complicity, Contradictions and Prospects (London: Zed Books, 2013).

[44] See S. Hanafi and L. Tabar, “The Intifada and the Support Business: The Impression of the New Liberal Agenda on the Palestinian NGOs,” Comparative Research of South Asia, Africa and the Center East 23 (2003). See additionally I. Jad, “The NGO-isation of Arab Ladies’s Actions,” IDS Bulletin 35 (2004).

[45] I. Makkawi, “In direction of an Rising Paradigm of Important Neighborhood Psychology in Palestine,” Journal of Important Psychology, Counselling and Psychotherapy 9/2 (2009).

[46] R. Giacaman, “Reframing Public Well being in Wartime: From the Biomedical Mannequin to the ‘Wounds Inside’,” Journal of Palestine Research 47/2 (2018).

[47] C. Sousa and D. J. Marshall, “Political Violence and Psychological Well being: Results of Neoliberalism and the Position of Worldwide Social Work Follow,” Worldwide Social Work 60/4 (2017).

[48] B. Alloush, “Overcoming the Hurdles: The Wrestle of Palestinian Humanitarian NGOs,” Tahrir Institute for Center East Coverage (2021), See additionally T. Dana, “Criminalizing Palestinian Resistance: The EU’s Extra Situation on Support to Palestine,” Al Shabaka (2020),

[49] Grubner (see notice 36).

[50] N. Avissar, “Psychotherapy and Political Activism: Inspecting the Israeli-Palestinian Case,” Psychoanalysis, Tradition and Society 13/2 (2008), p. 170.

[51] R. Marton, “The Proper to Insanity: Les luttes contre la psychiatrie institutionnelle en Israël,” CSPRP Conférence: Penser aujourd’hui à partir de Frantz Fanon (2007),

[52] F. Fanon, Black Pores and skin, White Masks (London: Pluto Press, 1952/2008).

[53] F. Fanon, The Wretched of the Earth (London: Penguin Trendy Classics, 1961/2001).

[54] I. Martín-Baro (ed), Writings for a Liberation Psychology (Cambridge: Harvard College Press, 1996).

[55] D. J. Marshall and C. Sousa, “Decolonizing Trauma: Liberation Psychology and Childhood Trauma in Palestine,” in T. Skelton, C. Harker, and Okay. Hörschelman (eds), Battle, Violence and Peace (Singapore: Springer, 2017), p. 292.

[56] L. Sheehi and S. Sheehi, Psychoanalysis below Occupation: Training Resistance in Palestine (New York: Routledge, 2022).

[57] Workplace of the United Nations Excessive Commissioner for Human Rights, “UN Specialists Condemn Israeli Suppression of Palestinian Human Rights Organisations,”

[58] Palestine-World Psychological Well being Community, “Psychological Well being Staff Demand Israel Launch Prisoner Ahmad Manasra,” Mondoweiss (2022), https://mondoweiss.web/2022/06/mental-health-workers-demand-israel-release-prisoner-ahmad-manasra/.

[59] W. Elasady, “Preventing the Anti-BDS Backlash,” Socialist Employee (October 3 2016),

[60] F. Yeomans and E. Caligor, “What Is Neutrality in Psychotherapy Anyway?,” Psychiatric Information (2016);  American Psychiatric Affiliation, “Neutrality,” in Dictionary of Psychology,

[61] Becker (2014, see notice 22), p. 44. See additionally N. C. Hollander, “Psychoanalysis and the Downside of the Bystander in Instances of Terror,” in L. Layton, N. C. Hollander, and S. Gutwill (eds), Psychoanalysis, Class and Politics: Encounters within the Scientific Setting (New York: Routledge, 2006).

[62] Hollander (see notice 61), p. 159.

[63] Becker (2014, see notice 22).

[64] M. Kemp, “Dehumanization, Guilt and Giant Group Dynamics with Reference to the West, Israel and the Palestinians,” British Journal of Psychotherapy 27/4 (2011).

[65] Avissar (2008, see notice 50).

[66] E. A. Bowen, N. S. Murshid, A. Brylinski-Jackson, et al., “Transferring towards Trauma-Knowledgeable and Human Rights-Primarily based Social Coverage: The Position of the Serving to Professions,” in L. D. Butler, F. M. Critelli, and J. Carello (eds), Trauma and Human Rights: Integrating Approaches to Handle Human Struggling (London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2019).

[67] E. Renault, “A Important Idea of Social Struggling,” Important Horizons 11/2 (2010), p. 238.

[68] Becker (2014, see notice 22).

[69] C. Beyrer, “Impunity: Undermining the Well being and Human Rights Consensus,” Well being and Human Rights Journal 22/1 (2020).

[70] B’Tselem – The Israeli Info Heart for Human Rights within the Occupied Territories, Taking part in the Safety Card: Israeli Coverage in Hebron as Means to Impact Forcible Switch of Native Palestinians, See additionally Yesh Din, Yitzhar – A Case Examine: Settler Violence as a Automobile for Taking Over Palestinian Land with State and Navy Backing,

[71] Yesh Din, Information Sheet, December 2019: Regulation Enforcement on Israeli Civilians within the West Financial institution, See additionally United Nations Workplace for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, “Unprotected: Settler Assaults in opposition to Palestinians on the Rise amidst the Outbreak of COVID-19,” Humanitarian Bulletin (June 22, 2020), material/unprotected-settler-attacks-against-palestinians-rise-amidst-outbreak-covid-19.

[72] D. Puras, “Challenges in Selling the Interdependence of all Human Rights,” Well being and Human Rights Journal 22/1 (2020). See additionally Summerfield (1995, see notice 34).

[73] D. Becker, “The Deficiency of the Idea of Posttraumatic Stress Dysfunction When Coping with Victims of Human Rights Violations,” in R. J. Kleber, C. R. Figley, and B. P. R. Gersons (eds), Past Trauma: Cultural and Societal Dynamics (New York: Springer Science + Enterprise Media, 1995). See additionally Becker (2014, see notice 22).

[74] Becker (1995, see notice 73), p. 104.

[75] Ibid.

[76] Makkawi (2009, see notice 31).

[77] S. Gruskin, “Reflections on 25 Years of Well being and Human Rights: Historical past, Context, and the Want for Strategic Motion,” Well being and Human Rights Journal 22/1 (2020).

[78] Ibid.

[79] Coordination of Authorities Actions within the Territories, “Process for Entry and Residence of Foreigners within the Judea and Samaria Space” (February 20, 2022), policies/judeaentry2022.

[80] “New Israeli Guidelines on Foreigners Visiting West Financial institution Stir Outrage,” Al Jazeera (April 27, 2022). See additionally M. Omer-Man, “Israel’s Restrictions on Foreigners Touring to the West Financial institution Simply Obtained 92 Pages Worse,” Democracy for the Arab World Now (2022),

[81] See, for instance, J. Butler, “No, It’s Not Anti-semitic,” London Evaluate of Books 25/16 (2003); O. Bartov, “Criticism of Israel and Its Insurance policies Isn’t Antisemitism,” Haaretz (2021),; H. Bresheeth-Zabner, An Military Like No Different: How the Israel Protection Forces Made a Nation (London: Verso, 2020).

[82] D. Brom and E. Witztum, “When Political Actuality Enters Remedy: Moral Issues within the Remedy of Posttraumatic Stress Dysfunction,” in R. J. Kleber, C. R. Figley, and B. P. R. Gersons (eds), Past Trauma: Cultural and Societal Dynamics (New York: Springer Science + Enterprise Media, 1995), p. 247.

[83] Becker (2014, see notice 22).

[84] See R. Batniji, Y. Rabaia, V. Nguyen-Gillham, et al., “Well being as Human Safety within the Occupied Palestinian Territory,” Lancet 373/9669 (2009); Giacaman et al. (2009, see notice 30); Makkawi (2009, see notice 31).

[85] Okay. Rauchfuss, “‘Die Tragödie beginnt erst nach dem Ende der Verbrechen‘. Eine Kultur der Straflosigkeit behindert die Rehabilitation von Überlebenden schwerer Menschenrechtsverletzungen, ” PERIPHERIE 109/110- 28 (2008).

[86] Human Rights Council, Israeli Settlements within the Occupied Palestinian Territory, together with East Jerusalem, and within the Occupied Syrian Golan, UN Doc. A/HRC/28/44 (2015). See additionally United Nations Normal Meeting, Report of the Particular Rapporteur on the Scenario of Human Rights within the Palestinian Territories Occupied since 1967, UN Doc. A/HRC/25/67 (2014); Worldwide Courtroom of Justice, Authorized Penalties of the Building of a Wall within the Occupied Palestinian Territory,

[87] L. S. Bloom, “The Sanctuary Mannequin: Growing Generic Inpatient Packages for the Remedy of Psychological Trauma,” in M. B. Williams and J. F. Sommer (eds), Handbook of Submit-Traumatic Remedy, a Sensible Information to Intervention, Remedy, and Analysis (Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood Publishing, 1994), p. 476.

[88] R. Khosla, “Well being and Human Rights at a Crossroads,” Well being and Human Rights Journal 22/1 (2020).




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